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Business and project teams can share calendars as well as documents and other information. Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research, software development, conference planning, political activism and creative writing.
Social and political collaboration is also becoming more widespread as both Internet access and computer literacy spread.
The Internet allows computer users to remotely access other computers and information stores easily from any access point. Access may be with computer security , i.
This is encouraging new ways of working from home, collaboration and information sharing in many industries. An accountant sitting at home can audit the books of a company based in another country, on a server situated in a third country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth.
These accounts could have been created by home-working bookkeepers, in other remote locations, based on information emailed to them from offices all over the world.
Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet, but the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in practice.
An office worker away from their desk, perhaps on the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday, can access their emails, access their data using cloud computing , or open a remote desktop session into their office PC using a secure virtual private network VPN connection on the Internet.
This can give the worker complete access to all of their normal files and data, including email and other applications, while away from the office.
It has been referred to among system administrators as the Virtual Private Nightmare,  because it extends the secure perimeter of a corporate network into remote locations and its employees' homes.
Many people use the World Wide Web to access news, weather and sports reports, to plan and book vacations and to pursue their personal interests.
People use chat , messaging and email to make and stay in touch with friends worldwide, sometimes in the same way as some previously had pen pals.
Social networking websites such as Facebook , Twitter , and Myspace have created new ways to socialize and interact. Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to pages, to pursue common interests, and to connect with others.
It is also possible to find existing acquaintances, to allow communication among existing groups of people. Sites like LinkedIn foster commercial and business connections.
YouTube and Flickr specialize in users' videos and photographs. While social networking sites were initially for individuals only, today they are widely used by businesses and other organizations to promote their brands, to market to their customers and to encourage posts to " go viral ".
A risk for both individuals and organizations writing posts especially public posts on social networking websites, is that especially foolish or controversial posts occasionally lead to an unexpected and possibly large-scale backlash on social media from other Internet users.
This is also a risk in relation to controversial offline behavior, if it is widely made known. The nature of this backlash can range widely from counter-arguments and public mockery, through insults and hate speech , to, in extreme cases, rape and death threats.
The online disinhibition effect describes the tendency of many individuals to behave more stridently or offensively online than they would in person.
A significant number of feminist women have been the target of various forms of harassment in response to posts they have made on social media, and Twitter in particular has been criticised in the past for not doing enough to aid victims of online abuse.
For organizations, such a backlash can cause overall brand damage , especially if reported by the media. However, this is not always the case, as any brand damage in the eyes of people with an opposing opinion to that presented by the organization could sometimes be outweighed by strengthening the brand in the eyes of others.
Furthermore, if an organization or individual gives in to demands that others perceive as wrong-headed, that can then provoke a counter-backlash.
Some websites, such as Reddit , have rules forbidding the posting of personal information of individuals also known as doxxing , due to concerns about such postings leading to mobs of large numbers of Internet users directing harassment at the specific individuals thereby identified.
In particular, the Reddit rule forbidding the posting of personal information is widely understood to imply that all identifying photos and names must be censored in Facebook screenshots posted to Reddit.
However, the interpretation of this rule in relation to public Twitter posts is less clear, and in any case, like-minded people online have many other ways they can use to direct each other's attention to public social media posts they disagree with.
Children also face dangers online such as cyberbullying and approaches by sexual predators , who sometimes pose as children themselves.
Children may also encounter material which they may find upsetting, or material which their parents consider to be not age-appropriate.
Due to naivety, they may also post personal information about themselves online, which could put them or their families at risk unless warned not to do so.
The most popular social networking websites, such as Facebook and Twitter, commonly forbid users under the age of However, these policies are typically trivial to circumvent by registering an account with a false birth date, and a significant number of children aged under 13 join such sites anyway.
Social networking sites for younger children, which claim to provide better levels of protection for children, also exist. The Internet has been a major outlet for leisure activity since its inception, with entertaining social experiments such as MUDs and MOOs being conducted on university servers, and humor-related Usenet groups receiving much traffic.
Another area of leisure activity on the Internet is multiplayer gaming. While online gaming has been around since the s, modern modes of online gaming began with subscription services such as GameSpy and MPlayer.
Many people use the Internet to access and download music, movies and other works for their enjoyment and relaxation. Free and fee-based services exist for all of these activities, using centralized servers and distributed peer-to-peer technologies.
Some of these sources exercise more care with respect to the original artists' copyrights than others. Internet usage has been correlated to users' loneliness.
Cybersectarianism is a new organizational form which involves: Overseas supporters provide funding and support; domestic practitioners distribute tracts, participate in acts of resistance, and share information on the internal situation with outsiders.
Collectively, members and practitioners of such sects construct viable virtual communities of faith, exchanging personal testimonies and engaging in the collective study via email, on-line chat rooms, and web-based message boards.
Cyberslacking can become a drain on corporate resources; the average UK employee spent 57 minutes a day surfing the Web while at work, according to a study by Peninsula Business Services.
Carr believes that Internet use has other effects on individuals , for instance improving skills of scan-reading and interfering with the deep thinking that leads to true creativity.
Electronic business e-business encompasses business processes spanning the entire value chain: E-commerce seeks to add revenue streams using the Internet to build and enhance relationships with clients and partners.
While much has been written of the economic advantages of Internet-enabled commerce , there is also evidence that some aspects of the Internet such as maps and location-aware services may serve to reinforce economic inequality and the digital divide.
Author Andrew Keen , a long-time critic of the social transformations caused by the Internet, has recently focused on the economic effects of consolidation from Internet businesses.
Telecommuting is the performance within a traditional worker and employer relationship when it is facilitated by tools such as groupware , virtual private networks , conference calling , videoconferencing , and voice over IP VOIP so that work may be performed from any location, most conveniently the worker's home.
It can be efficient and useful for companies as it allows workers to communicate over long distances, saving significant amounts of travel time and cost.
As broadband Internet connections become commonplace, more workers have adequate bandwidth at home to use these tools to link their home to their corporate intranet and internal communication networks.
Wikis have also been used in the academic community for sharing and dissemination of information across institutional and international boundaries.
Queens , New York has used a wiki to allow citizens to collaborate on the design and planning of a local park. The Internet has achieved new relevance as a political tool.
The presidential campaign of Howard Dean in in the United States was notable for its success in soliciting donation via the Internet. Many political groups use the Internet to achieve a new method of organizing for carrying out their mission, having given rise to Internet activism , most notably practiced by rebels in the Arab Spring.
Many have understood the Internet as an extension of the Habermasian notion of the public sphere , observing how network communication technologies provide something like a global civic forum.
However, incidents of politically motivated Internet censorship have now been recorded in many countries, including western democracies.
The spread of low-cost Internet access in developing countries has opened up new possibilities for peer-to-peer charities, which allow individuals to contribute small amounts to charitable projects for other individuals.
Websites, such as DonorsChoose and GlobalGiving , allow small-scale donors to direct funds to individual projects of their choice.
A popular twist on Internet-based philanthropy is the use of peer-to-peer lending for charitable purposes.
Kiva pioneered this concept in , offering the first web-based service to publish individual loan profiles for funding.
Kiva raises funds for local intermediary microfinance organizations which post stories and updates on behalf of the borrowers.
Kiva falls short of being a pure peer-to-peer charity, in that loans are disbursed before being funded by lenders and borrowers do not communicate with lenders themselves.
However, the recent spread of low-cost Internet access in developing countries has made genuine international person-to-person philanthropy increasingly feasible.
In , the US-based nonprofit Zidisha tapped into this trend to offer the first person-to-person microfinance platform to link lenders and borrowers across international borders without intermediaries.
Members can fund loans for as little as a dollar, which the borrowers then use to develop business activities that improve their families' incomes while repaying loans to the members with interest.
Borrowers access the Internet via public cybercafes, donated laptops in village schools, and even smart phones, then create their own profile pages through which they share photos and information about themselves and their businesses.
As they repay their loans, borrowers continue to share updates and dialogue with lenders via their profile pages. This direct web-based connection allows members themselves to take on many of the communication and recording tasks traditionally performed by local organizations, bypassing geographic barriers and dramatically reducing the cost of microfinance services to the entrepreneurs.
Internet resources, hardware, and software components are the target of criminal or malicious attempts to gain unauthorized control to cause interruptions, commit fraud, engage in blackmail or access private information.
Malicious software used and spread on the Internet includes computer viruses which copy with the help of humans, computer worms which copy themselves automatically, software for denial of service attacks , ransomware , botnets , and spyware that reports on the activity and typing of users.
Usually, these activities constitute cybercrime. Defense theorists have also speculated about the possibilities of cyber warfare using similar methods on a large scale.
The vast majority of computer surveillance involves the monitoring of data and traffic on the Internet. Computers communicate over the Internet by breaking up messages emails, images, videos, web pages, files, etc.
Packet Capture Appliance intercepts these packets as they are traveling through the network, in order to examine their contents using other programs.
A packet capture is an information gathering tool, but not an analysis tool. That is it gathers "messages" but it does not analyze them and figure out what they mean.
The large amount of data gathered from packet capturing requires surveillance software that filters and reports relevant information, such as the use of certain words or phrases, the access of certain types of web sites, or communicating via email or chat with certain parties.
Some governments, such as those of Burma , Iran , North Korea , the Mainland China , Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates restrict access to content on the Internet within their territories, especially to political and religious content, with domain name and keyword filters.
In Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, major Internet service providers have voluntarily agreed to restrict access to sites listed by authorities.
While this list of forbidden resources is supposed to contain only known child pornography sites, the content of the list is secret.
Many free or commercially available software programs, called content-control software are available to users to block offensive websites on individual computers or networks, in order to limit access by children to pornographic material or depiction of violence.
As the Internet is a heterogeneous network, the physical characteristics, including for example the data transfer rates of connections, vary widely.
It exhibits emergent phenomena that depend on its large-scale organization. An Internet blackout or outage can be caused by local signalling interruptions.
Disruptions of submarine communications cables may cause blackouts or slowdowns to large areas, such as in the submarine cable disruption.
Less-developed countries are more vulnerable due to a small number of high-capacity links. Land cables are also vulnerable, as in when a woman digging for scrap metal severed most connectivity for the nation of Armenia.
In , researchers estimated the energy used by the Internet to be between and GW, less than two percent of the energy used by humanity.
This estimate included the energy needed to build, operate, and periodically replace the estimated million laptops, a billion smart phones and million servers worldwide as well as the energy that routers, cell towers, optical switches, Wi-Fi transmitters and cloud storage devices use when transmitting Internet traffic.
This article incorporates text from a free content work. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see Wikipedia: Adding open license text to Wikipedia.
This article is about the worldwide computer network. For other uses, see Internet disambiguation. Not to be confused with the World Wide Web. An Opte Project visualization of routing paths through a portion of the Internet.
List of countries by number of Internet users and List of countries by Internet connection speeds. Global Internet usage and English in computing.
Global digital divide and Digital divide. Internet censorship , Culture of fear , and Mass surveillance. Computer and network surveillance. Signals intelligence and Mass surveillance.
Internet censorship and Internet freedom. Culture of fear and Great Firewall. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Retrieved 27 June Retrieved July 31, Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed.
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The Mobile Economy Zero-rating in Emerging Economies. Much ado about nothing? Zero rating in the African context.
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Medical Reference Services Quarterly. Archived from the original on 29 November Journal of Legal Education. Archived from the original on 3 July Archived from the original on 25 August Retrieved 7 April A key point to remember: For example, if some powerful compression or the Z-pinch described in Figure on page suddenly merged fused six stable nuclei near point A, the resulting heavy nucleus would briefly lie at point B, where it would quickly decay or fission.
If the valley of stability were straight and did not curve, stable nuclei that fused together would form a stable , heavy nucleus i.
Nuclei near C that fission will usually produce neutron-heavy products. As you will see, because the valley curves, we have radioactivity—another key point to remember.
How this happened will be explained later. We can think of these new isotopes as being scattered high on the sides of the valley of stability. It would be as if a powerful explosion, or some sudden release of energy, blasted rocks up onto the steep sides of a long valley.
Most rocks would quickly roll back down and dislodge somewhat unstable rocks that were only part way up the slope. Today, rocks rarely roll down the sides of the valley.
Later in this chapter, you will see the well-established physical processes that —in less than one hour—greatly accelerated radioactive decay during the flood.
This routine, nondestructive technique can be used to identify chemical elements in an unknown material.
Neutrons, usually from a nuclear reactor, bombard the material. Some nuclei that absorb neutrons become radioactive—are driven up the neutron-heavy side of the valley of stability.
When a very massive star begins to run out of hydrogen and other nuclear fuels, it can collapse so suddenly that almost all its electrons are driven into nuclei.
What remains near the center of the gigantic explosion is a dense star, about 10 miles in diameter, composed of neutrons—a neutron star.
Like charges repel each other, so what keeps a nucleus containing many positively charged protons from flying apart?
A poorly understood force inside the nucleus acts over a very short distance to pull protons and, it turns out, neutrons, as well together.
Nuclear physicists call this the strong force. Binding energy, described on page , is the result of work done by the strong force. Two nuclei, pushed toward each other, initially experience an increasing repelling force, called the Coulomb force , because both nuclei have positive charges.
However, if a voltage is accelerating many nuclei in one direction and electrons are flowing between them in the opposite direction, that repelling force is largely neutralized.
Furthermore, both positive and negative flows will produce a reinforcing Z-pinch. If the Z-pinch acts over a broad plasma flow, many nuclei could merge into superheavy nuclei —nuclei much heavier than any chemical element found naturally.
Most merged nuclei would be unstable radioactive and would rapidly decay, because they would lie high on the proton-heavy side of the valley of stability.
While the strong force holds nuclei together and overcomes the repelling Coulomb force, four particular nuclei are barely held together: Slight impacts will cause their decay.
Neutrons in a nucleus rarely decay, but free neutrons those outside a nucleus decay with a half-life of about Why should a neutron surrounded by protons and electrons often have a half-life of millions of years, but, when isolated, have a half-life of minutes?
When an intense electric field strips electrons surrounding certain heavy nuclei, those nuclei become so unstable that their decay rate increases, sometimes a billionfold.
Nuclear Combustion Since February , thousands of sophisticated experiments at the Proton Electrodynamics Research Laboratory Kiev, Ukraine have demonstrated nuclear combustion 31 by producing traces of all known chemical elements and their stable isotopes.
Each experiment used one of 22 separate electrode materials, including copper, silver, platinum, bismuth, and lead, each at least In a typical experiment, the energy of an electron pulse is less than joules roughly 0.
That point, because of the concentrated electrical heating, instantly becomes the center of a tiny sphere of dense plasma.
With a burst of more than 10 18 electrons flowing through the center of this plasma sphere, the surrounding nuclei positive ions implode onto that center.
Compression from this implosion easily overcomes the normal Coulomb repulsion between the positively charged nuclei. The resulting fusion produces superheavy chemical elements , some twice as heavy as uranium and some that last for a few months.
The electrodes ruptured with a flash of light, including x-rays and gamma rays. However, as explained in Figure on page , heat was absorbed by elements heavier than iron that were produced by fusion.
Therefore, little heat was emitted from the entire experiment. The Proton Laboratory, which has received patents in Europe, the United States, and Japan, collaborates with other laboratories that wish to verify results and duplicate experiments.
The focused heat was enough to melt a piece of rock a few millimeters in diameter. Each year, cosmic radiation striking the upper atmosphere converts about 21 pounds of nitrogen into carbon, also called radiocarbon.
Carbon has a half-life of 5, years. Radiocarbon dating has become much more precise, by using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry AMS , a technique that counts individual carbon atoms.
AMS ages for old carbon specimens are generally about 5, years. In those cases, AMS ages are usually 10— times younger.
Today, argon is produced almost entirely by electron capture in potassium The earth would have to be about 10 10 years old [billion years, twice what evolutionists believe] and the initial 40 K [potassium] content of the earth about times greater than at present Since Cook published that statement, estimates of the amount of 40 K in the earth have increased.
Nevertheless, a glaring contradiction remains. If 40 Ar was produced by a process other than the slow decay of 40 K, as the evidence indicates, then the potassium-argon and argon-argon dating techniques, the most frequently used radiometric dating techniques, 27 become useless, if not deceptive.
Enceladus would need a thousand times its current rock content consisting of the most favorable types of meteorites to explain all the argon In the previous chapter, evidence was given showing that Enceladus and other irregular moons in the solar system are captured asteroids, whose material was expelled from earth by the fountains of the great deep.
Could all that 40 Ar have been produced in the subterranean chamber and expelled as part of the debris? Enceladus also contains too much deuterium—about the same amount as in almost all comets and more than ten times the concentration found in the rest of the solar system.
Potassium is the most abundant radioactive substance in the human body and in every living thing.
Yes, your body is slightly radioactive! Fortunately, potassium decays by expelling an electron beta decay which is not very penetrating.
While only one ten-thousandth of the potassium in living things is potassium, most has already decayed, so living things were at greater risk in the past.
How could life have evolved if it had been radioactive? That question also applies for the rare radioactive isotopes in the chemical elements that are in DNA, such as carbon DNA is the most complex material known.
The answer to this question is simple. Zircons are tiny, durable crystals about twice the thickness of a human hair. If this is true, zircons are extremely old.
For example, hundreds of zircons found in Western Australia would be 4. Most evolutionists find this puzzling, because they have claimed that the earth was largely molten prior to 3.
These microdiamonds apparently formed 1 under unusual geological conditions, and 2 under extremely high, and perhaps sudden, pressures before the zircons encased them.
Helium Retention in Zircons. Uranium and thorium usually decay by emitting alpha particles. Each alpha particle is a helium nucleus that quickly attracts two electrons and becomes a helium atom 4 He.
The helium gas produced in zircons by uranium and thorium decay should diffuse out relatively quickly, because helium does not combine chemically with other atoms, and it is extremely small—the second smallest of all elements by mass, and the smallest by volume!
Some zircons would be 1. But based on the rapid diffusion of helium out of zircons, the lead would have been produced in the last 4,—8, years 40 —a clear contradiction, suggesting that at least one time in the past, rates were faster.
Helium-3 3 H e. Ejected alpha particles, as stated above, quickly become 4 He, which constitutes Only nuclear reactions produce 3 He, the remaining 0.
Today, no nuclear reactions are known to produce 3 He inside the earth. Only the hydroplate theory explains how nuclear reactions produced 3 He at one time during the flood inside the solid earth in the fluttering crust.
Because nuclear reactions that produce 3 He are not known to be occurring inside the earth, some evolutionists say that 3 He must have been primordial—present before the earth evolved.
Therefore, 3 He, they say, was trapped in the infalling meteoritic material that formed the earth. But helium does not combine chemically with anything, so how did such a light, volatile gas get inside meteorites?
If helium was trapped in falling meteorites, why did it not quickly escape or bubble out when meteorites supposedly crashed into the molten, evolving earth?
During the earthquake, the water alongside the chains was full of little bubbles; the breaking of them sounded like red-hot iron put into water.
The three New Madrid Earthquakes — , centered near New Madrid, Missouri, were some of the largest earthquakes ever to strike the United States.
Although relatively few people observed and documented them, the reports we do have are harrowing. Louis, gleams and flashes of light were frequently visible around the horizon in different directions, generally ascending from the earth.
In Livingston County, the atmosphere previous to the shock of February 8, contained remarkable, luminous objects visible for considerable distances, although there was no moon.
It was broad and expanded, reaching from the zenith on every side toward the horizon. It exhibited no flashes, but, as long as it lasted, was a diffused illumination of the atmosphere on all sides.
Their continuance was several hours; their size as large as a house on fire; the motion of the blaze was quite visible, but no sparks appeared.
Why are many large earthquakes accompanied by so much electrical activity? Are frightened people hallucinating?
Do electrical phenomena cause earthquakes, or do earthquakes cause electrical activity? Maybe something else produces both electrical activity and earthquakes.
In , some scientists recognized that just the heat from the radioactivity in the granite crust should explain all the heat now coming out of the earth.
If radioactivity were occurring below the crust, even more heat should be exiting. Later, holes drilled into the ocean floor showed slightly more heat coming up through the ocean floors than through the continents.
But basaltic rocks under the ocean floor contain little radioactivity. However, the rate at which temperatures increased with depth was so great that if the trend continued, the rock at the top of the mantle would be partially melted.
Seismic studies have shown that this is not the case. A third measurement technique, used in regions of the United States and Australia, shows a strange, but well-verified, correlation: Wherever radioactivity is high, the heat flow will usually be high; wherever radioactivity is low, the heat flow will usually be low.
However, the radioactivity at those hotter locations is far too small to account for that heat. First, consider what it does not necessarily mean.
When two sets of measurements correlate or correspond , people often mistakenly conclude that one of the things measured such as radioactivity in surface rocks at one location caused the other thing being measured surface heat flow at that location.
Even experienced researchers sometimes make this mistake. Students of statistics are repeatedly warned of this common mistake in logic, and hundreds of humorous 50 and tragic examples are given; nevertheless, the problem abounds in all research fields.
If more heat is coming out of the ground at one place, then more radioactivity was also produced there. Therefore, radioactivity in surface rocks would correlate with surface heat flow.
The earth did not evolve. Had supernovas spewed out radioisotopes in our part of the galaxy, radioactivity would be spread evenly throughout the earth, not concentrated in continental granite.
The earth was never molten. Had the earth ever been molten, the denser elements and minerals such as uranium and zircons would have sunk toward the center of the earth.
Reactors generate heat by the controlled fission of certain isotopes, such as uranium U. For some unknown reason, 0. This enrichment is both expensive and technically difficult.
Controlling the reactor is a second requirement. When a neutron splits a U nucleus, heat and typically two or three other neutrons are released.
If the U is sufficiently concentrated and, on average, exactly one of those two or three neutrons fissions another U nucleus, the reaction continues and is said to be critical —or self-sustaining.
If this delicate situation can be maintained, considerable heat from binding energy is steadily released, usually for years.
There, they discovered depleted partially consumed U in isolated zones. Many fission products from U were mixed with the depleted U but found nowhere else.
Nuclear engineers, aware of just how difficult it is to design and build a nuclear reactor, are amazed by what they believe was a naturally occurring reactor.
But notice, we do not know that a self-sustaining, critical reactor operated at Oklo. All we know is that considerable U has fissioned.
How could this have happened? That is, for every neutrons produced by U fission, 99 or fewer other neutrons were produced in the next fission cycle, an instant later.
The nuclear reaction would quickly die down; i. However, suppose as will soon be explained many free neutrons frequently appeared somewhere in the uranium ore layer.
Although the nuclear reaction would not be self-sustaining, the process would multiply the number of neutrons available to fission U.
Too many neutrons would have escaped or been absorbed by all the nonfissioning material called poisons mixed in with the uranium.
Second, one zone lies 30 kilometers from the other zones. Whatever strange events at Oklo depleted U in 16 largely separated zones was probably common to that region of Africa and not to some specific topography.
Uranium deposits are found in many diverse regions worldwide, and yet, only in the Oklo region has this mystery been observed.
Third, depleted U was found where it should not be—near the borders of the ore deposit, where neutrons would tend to escape, instead of fission U.
Had Oklo been a reactor, depleted U should be concentrated near the center of the ore body. Fourth, at Oklo, the ratio of U to U in uranium ore, which should be about 0.
Harms has explained that this wide variation. Harms also explained why rapid spikes in temperature and nuclear power would produce a wide range in the ratios of U to U over very short distances.
The question which will soon be answered is, what could have caused those spikes? An alpha particle shot from a radioisotope inside a rock acts like a tiny bullet crashing through the surrounding crystalline structure.
For example, U, after a series of eight alpha decays and six much less-damaging beta decays , will become lead Pb.
Therefore, eight concentric spheres, each with a slightly different color, will surround what was a point concentration of a billion U atoms.
Under a microscope, those radiohalos look like the rings of a tiny onion. Radiohalos from the U Decay Series. Suppose many U atoms were concentrated at the point of radioactivity shown here.
Each U atom eventually ejects one alpha particle in a random direction, but at the specific velocity corresponding to 4. That energy determines the distance traveled, so each alpha particle from U ends up at the gray spherical shell shown above.
Alpha particles from daughter isotopes will travel to different shells. Each sharply defined halo requires the ejection of about a billion alpha particles from the common center of all halos, because each alpha particle leaves such a thin path of destruction.
A U atom becomes U after the alpha decay and two less-damaging beta decays. Later, that U atom expels an alpha particle with 4. As a billion U atoms decay, a sharp U halo forms.
While we might expect all eight halos to be nested have a common center as shown above, G. Henderson made a surprising discovery 64 in Since then, the mystery has deepened, and possible explanations have generated heated controversy.
Thorium Th and U also occur naturally in rocks, and each begins a different decay series that produces different polonium isotopes.
However, only the U series produces isolated polonium halos. Why are isolated polonium halos in the U decay series but not in other decay series?
If the earth is 4. Why then is U still around, how did it get here, what concentrated it, and where is all the lead that the U decay series should have produced?
We can think of the eight alpha decays from U to Pb as producing the nine rungs on a generational ladder.
The last three alpha decays 60 are of the chemical element polonium Po: Their half-lives are extremely short: Surprisingly, polonium radiohalos are often found without their parents—or any other prior generation!
How could that be? Polonium is always a decay product. It must have had parents! Notice that Rn is on the rung immediately above the three polonium isotopes, but the Rn halo is missing.
Because Rn decays with a half-life of only 3. Furthermore, any polonium in the molten rock would have decayed long before the liquid could cool enough to solidify.
Therefore, we can all see that those rocks did not cool and solidify over eons, as commonly taught!
However, Gentry believes, incorrectly , that on Day 1 of the creation, a billion or so polonium atoms were concentrated at each of many points in rock; then, within days, the polonium decayed and formed isolated parentless halos.
Second, to form a distinct Po halo, those Po atoms, must undergo heat-releasing alpha decays, half of which would occur within 3.
The great heat generated in such a tiny volume in just 3. Third, polonium has 33 known radioisotopes, but only three Po, Po, and Po account for almost all the isolated polonium halos.
Those three are produced only by the U decay series, and U deposits are often found near isolated polonium halos. Why would only those three isotopes be created instantly on Day 1?
Instead, something produced by only the U decay series accounts for the isolated polonium halos. Fourth, Henderson and Sparks, while doing their pioneering work on isolated polonium halos in , made an important discovery: In most cases it appears that they [the centers of the isolated halos] are concentrated in planes parallel to the plane of cleavage.
When a book of biotite is split into thin leaves, most of the latter will be blank until a certain depth is reached, when signs of halos become manifest.
A number of halos will then be found in a central section in a single leaf, while the leaves on either side of it show off-centre sections of the same halos.
The same mode of occurrence is often found at intervals within the book. This implies that polonium atoms or their Rn parent flowed along what is now the central sheet and lodged in the channel wall as that mineral sheet grew.
In other words, the polonium was not created on Day 1 inside solid rock. Fifth, isolated polonium halos are often found near uranium mines, where magma containing uranium was injected up through fossil bearing strata.
Therefore the intrusions and polonium halos obviously came after the flood, which itself was long after creation. The magma slowly cooled and solidified, while the uranium began releasing Rn that was quickly dissolved and transported upward in flowing water.
The polonium daughters of Rn, produced the parentless polonium halos. Richard Wakefield, who offered to show me a similar intrusion.
The site was near a uranium mine, about miles to the northeast near Bancroft, Ontario, where Bob Gentry had obtained some samples of isolated polonium halos.
I accepted and called my friend Bob Gentry to invite him to join us. Several days later, he flew in from Tennessee and, along with an impartial geologist who specialized in that region of Ontario, we went to the mine.
Although we could not gain access into the mine, we all agreed that the intrusion cut up through the sedimentary layers.
Gentry concluded while we were there and in later writings 68 that the sedimentary layers with solid intrusions must have been created supernaturally with Po, Po, and Po already present but no other polonium isotopes present.
Then the Po, Po, and Po decayed minutes or days later. Unfortunately, I had to disagree with my friend; the heat generated would have melted the entire halo.
Collins has a different explanation for the polonium mystery. He first made several perceptive observations. The rock that contains these wormlike patterns is called myrmekite [MUR-muh-kite].
Myrmekites have intrigued geologists and mineralogists since Collins admits that he does not know why myrmekite is associated with isolated polonium halos in granites.
Collins notes that those halos all seem to be near uranium deposits and tend to be in two minerals biotite and fluorite in granitic pegmatites [PEG-muh-tites] and in biotite in granite when myrmekites are present.
Biotite, fluorite, and pegmatites form out of hot water solutions in cracks in rocks. Because radon is inert, it can move freely through solid cracks without combining chemically with minerals lining the walls of those cracks.
Collins insights end there, but they raise six questions. What was the source of all that hot, flowing water, and how could it flow so rapidly up through rock?
Why was the water Rn rich? Because halos are found in different geologic periods, did all this remarkable activity occur repeatedly, but at intervals of millions of years?
What concentrated a billion or so Po atoms at each microscopic speck that became the center of an isolated polonium halo?
Were these microscopic specks the favored resting places for Po for billions of years, or did the decay rate of U somehow spike just before all that hot water flowed?
Remember, Po decays today with a half-life of only 3. Why are isolated polonium halos associated with parallel and aligned myrmekite that resembles tiny ant tunnels?
Robert Gentry made several major discoveries concerning radiohalos, such as elliptical halos in coalified wood from the Rocky Mountains.
In one case, he found a spherical Po halo superimposed on an elliptical Po halo. Then, the partially depleted Po whose half-life is days finished its decay, forming the spherical halo.
Mineralogists have found, at many places on earth, radial stress fractures surrounding certain minerals that experienced extensive alpha decays.
Halos were not seen, because billions of decaying radioisotopes were not concentrated at microscopic points. Ramdohr, a famous German mineralogist, observed that these surrounding fractures did not occur, as one would expect, along grain boundaries or along planes of weakness.
Instead, the fractures occurred in more random patterns around the expanded material. Ramdohr noted that if the expansion had been slow, only a few cracks—all along surfaces of weakness—would be seen.
Alpha decays within this inclusion caused it to expand significantly, radially fracturing the surrounding zircon that was ten times the diameter of a human hair.
These fractures were not along grain boundaries or other surfaces of weakness, as one would expect. Mineralogist Paul Ramdohr concluded that the expansion was explosive.
Pegmatites are rocks with large crystals, typically one inch to several feet in size. Pegmatites appear to have crystallized from hot, watery mixtures containing some chemical components of nearby granite.
These mixtures penetrated large, open fractures in the granite where they slowly cooled and solidified. What Herculean force produced the fractures?
Often, the granite is part of a huge block, with a top surface area of at least square kilometers 40 square miles , called a batholith.
Batholiths are typically granite regions that have pushed up into the overlying, layered sediments, somehow removing the layers they replaced.
How was room made for the upthrust granite? This understanding of batholiths and pegmatites is based primarily on what is seen today.
In other words, we are trying to reason only from the effect we see back to its cause. A clearer picture of how and when they formed—and what other major events were happening on earth—will become apparent when we also reason in the opposite direction: Predictions are also possible when one can reason from cause to effect.
Generally, geology looks backward and physics looks forward. We will do both and will not be satisfied until a detailed picture emerges that is consistent from both vantage points.
In the centuries before the flood, supercritical water SCW in the subterranean chamber steadily dissolved the more soluble minerals in the rock directly above and below the chamber.
The flood began when pressure increases from tidal pumping in the subterranean chamber ruptured the weakening granite crust. Pillars were tapered downward like icicles, so they crushed in stages, beginning at their tips.
With each collapse and with each water-hammer cycle, the crust fluttered like a flag held horizontally in a strong wind. When a nonsymmetric, nonconducting crystal, such as quartz whose structure is shown above in simplified form , is stretched, a small voltage is generated between opposite faces of the crystal.
When the tension T changes to compression C , the voltage changes sign. As the temperature of quartz rises, it deforms more easily, producing a stronger piezoelectric effect.
Most nonconducting minerals are symmetric, but if they contain defects, they are to some degree nonsymmetric and therefore are also piezoelectric.
Granite pillars, explained on page and in Figure 56 on page , were formed in the subterranean water, in part, by an extrusion process.
Therefore, piezoelectric crystals in the pillars would have had a preferred orientation. Also, before the flood, tidal pumping in the subterranean water compressed and stretched the pillars and crust twice a day.
So, as the flood began, the piezoelectric effect within pounding pillars and fluttering granite hydroplates generated immense voltages and electric fields.
Imagine how magnified those waves would become if the crust, instead of resting on solid rock, were resting on a thick layer of unusually compressible water—SCW.
As the subterranean waters escaped, the crust flapped, like a large flag held horizontally in a strong wind. Flutter began as the fountains of the great deep erupted.
Waves rippled through the entire crust at the natural frequencies of the crust, multiplying and reinforcing waves and increasing their amplitudes.
Grab a phone book with both hands and arch it upward. The top cover is in tension, and the bottom cover is in compression. Similarly, rock in the fluttering crust, shown above, would alternate between tension T and compression C.
As explained in Figure , huge cyclic voltages would build up and suddenly discharge within the granite crust, because granite contains so much quartz, a piezoelectric mineral.
Pillars not shown at the base of the crust would become giant electrodes. With each cycle of the fluttering crust, current surged through the lower crust, which was honeycombed with tiny pockets of salty electrically conducting subterranean water.
Electrons flowing through solids, liquids, or gases are decelerated and deflected by electrical charges in the atoms encountered.
These decelerations, if energetic enough, release bremsstrahlung BREM-stra-lung radiation which vibrates other nuclei and releases some of their neutrons.
The red cables apply the generated voltage across the two vertical posts mounted on the black, nonconducting platform. Once the increasing voltage reaches about 4, volts, a spark a plasma jumps the gap shown in the circular inset.
When the horizontal bar is rotated in the opposite direction, the stress on the quartz crystal is reversed, so a spark jumps in the opposite direction.
In this device, a tiny quartz crystal and a trivial amount of compression produce 4, volts and a small spark.
The resulting gigavoltages would produce frightening electrical discharges, not through air, but through rock—and not across a little gap, but throughout the entire crustal layer.
Poling is an industrial process that steadily aligns piezoelectric crystals so greater voltages can be produced.
During the centuries before the flood, tidal stress cycles in the granite crust tension followed by compression, twice a day , and the voltages and electrical fields they produced, slowly aligned the quartz crystals.
A similar picture, but with arrows and positive and negative signs reversed, could be drawn for the compression half of the cycle.
Over the years, stresses heated the crust to some degree, which accelerated the alignment process. The fact that today so much electrical activity accompanies large earthquakes worldwide shows us that preflood poling was effective.
Laboratory tests have also shown that quartz crystals still have a degree of alignment in most quartz-rich rocks. Creationists, who believe the earth is young, must explain why we see so many radioactive decay products if the earth is not billions of years old.
But that would have generated enough heat to boil all the oceans away, so they say that another miracle must have removed all that heat.
While I agree that the earth is young, miracles should not be imagined to solve scientific problems. That would violate the most basic rule of science.
For details, see Figure on page and Endnote 11 on page Based on the considerable observable evidence already presented, here is a synopsis of what happened.
At the beginning of the flood, piezoelectric surges Z-pinched fused various stable nuclei along the surge paths into unstable proton-heavy and superheavy nuclei, some of which rapidly fissioned and decayed.
Months later, the compression event which, as explained on page , lasted less than 1 hour suddenly generated even more powerful piezoelectric surges which caused accelerated radioactive decay.
Why did accelerated decay happen? The quivering nucleus has at least six vibrational patterns, called modes ; each mode has many resonant or natural frequencies.
Radioactive nuclei made during the early weeks of the flood were always on the verge of decaying or even flying apart , especially in response to external electrical disturbances.
We have already shown on page specific situations in which the demonstrated electrical mechanisms of Fritz Bosch 18 and William Barker 21 suddenly sped up radioactive decay a billion fold.
Surging electrical currents during the compression event at the end of the flood provided great disturbances by emitting bremsstrahlung radiation.
Recall from page that electrons, surging through solids, liquids or gases, decelerate, lose kinetic energy, but conserve energy by emitting bremsstrahlung radiation.
The protons in the nucleus are accelerated [back and forth] by the [cyclic bremsstrahlung] electrical field. The neutrons are unaffected by the field, but they move in the direction opposite to that of the protons so that the center of mass of the nucleus remains stationary and momentum is conserved.
The restoring force, which ultimately reverses the motions of the protons and neutrons, is the strong nuclear force responsible for binding them together.
Bremsstrahlung radiation is released one photon at a time. The first photons emitted are the most energetic and radiate at the highest frequency.
Subsequent photons have lower energies and frequencies—from gamma rays and x-rays down to radio waves. The closer these frequencies are to any resonant frequency of nearby radioactive nuclei, the larger the vibrational amplitudes produced in those nuclei.
If the trillions upon trillions of electrons in each surge add enough energy to these almost unstable nuclei, radioactive decay accelerates. Large stable nuclei were also made radioactive by powerful bremsstrahlung radiation.
The vibrations that are set up temporarily distort a nucleus and, as explained on page , can cause it to eject one or more neutrons. Other nuclei that absorb these ejected neutrons also become less stable.
A miracle is not needed and, of course, should never be claimed just to solve a scientific problem. Rock is strong in compression, but weak in tension.
Therefore, one might think that fluttering hydroplates should have quickly failed in tension—along the red line in Figure That is only partially correct.
One must also recognize that compressive stresses increase with depth, because of the weight of overlying rock. The stress at each point within a hydroplate, then, was the compressive stress due to depth plus the cyclic stress due to flutter.
Yes, tension fractures occurred at the top of each hydroplate, and the sounds and shocks must have been terrifying. However, those cracks met greater and greater compressive resistance as they tried to grow downward.
Remember, tension cracks generally cannot grow through compressed material. Cracks at the top of arched hydroplates became lines of bending weakness, so flexing along those lines was great.
These cracks in a geographical region tended to be parallel. These lines must be recent fractures of some sort, because they are thin paths along which natural gas and even radon sometimes leak upward.
The cracks are difficult to identify on the ground, because they do not correspond to terrain, geological, or man-made features, nor do they show displacements, as do faults.
However, earthquakes tend to occur along them. What gigantic stresses fractured so much rock? Several possibilities come to mind:. But compressive failure crushing or impacts would not produce long, thin cracks.
But horizontal tension would pull a slab of rock apart at the instant of failure. Lineaments seem to be tension cracks formed by the fluttering of the crust during the early weeks of the flood.
Later, other stresses probably produced slippage faults and earthquakes along some former lineaments. At electrical breakdown, the energies in the surging electrons were thousands of times greater than 10—19 MeV, so during the flood, bremsstrahlung radiation released a sea of neutrons throughout the crust.
Abundant surface water a huge absorber protected life. During the flood, most of this 2 H- and 18 O-rich subterranean water was swept to the surface where it mixed with surface waters.
However, some subterranean water was temporarily trapped within all the mushy mineral deposits, such as salt NaCl , that had precipitated out of the SCW and collected on the chamber floor years before the flood.
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